Forging Processes

Forging refers to the forming and manipulation of metal through the use of directed compressive forces.

We primarily specialise in hot upset forging by using numerous on-site forging processes detailed below. Offering superior strength through compressed material grain flow, forged components are used in many industries worldwide.

Please contact us today for more information, our technical department can advise the best forging process suitable for your components.

Closed Die Forging

Closed Die Forging is the shaping of hot metal completely within the wall cavity of two dies. The impression for the forging can be in either die or divided between a top and bottom die, shown in the diagram below. Drop Forging is a good example of Closed Die Forging.

closed die forging process

Hammer Forging

Forging hammers operate using a vertical ram. When it moves in a downwards stroke it exerts a striking force, against a stationary component of the anvil, near the base of the hammer. This is the most common production process for Closed Die Forging, using repeated blows to obtain a filled cavity. he impression for the forging can be in either die or divided between a top and bottom die, shown in the diagram above.

Press Forging

Forging presses incorporate a vertical ram which exerts a controlled squeezing action on the work piece in contrast with repeated blows of a hammer forging.

In general presses can produce all types of forgings produced on hammers, with the advantage of forging alloys with moderate ductility that would commonly shatter under the blows of a hammer.

upset forging processUpset Forging

Upset Forging is accomplished by holding pre-heated material between grooved dies, commonly known as ‘grip dies’. Pressure is then applied to the end of the bar in the direction of its axis.

The Heading Tool upsets the end of the bar by displacing the heated metal within a cavity. It’s not uncommon to have several upsetting operations on one die set, gradually forming the bar to its required shape.

Counterblow Forging

Horizontal Counterblow Forging is a process where two opposing dies of equal weight are driven towards each other in a horizontal plane.

The energy of each blow may be pre-selected and limits set for each blow. Used also for closed die forging for rapid automated production of forgings.

horizontal counterblow forging process

Open Die Forging

Open Die Forging is one of the oldest forms of manufacturing, using traditional blacksmith methods.

The billet is heated above recrystallization temperature, ranging from 1000°C to 1300°C for steel, and gradually shaped by skilful hammering or pressing of the work piece to create the desired shape.

open die forging process


The Swaging process reduces the diameter or produces a taper on a round work piece. This can be solid or tube.

The swaging machine works by using 2, 3 or 4 opposing split dies which separate and close up to 2000 times a minute.

swaging and pointing process

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