The open die forging process involves heating up the metal and working the metal between a top ram and die and bottom anvil and die, through repeated blows. The operator manipulates the work using his skill to produce the shape required.
Often the tools are just flat tools, but also can have profiles and other shapes, being open on either or both ends (Semi-open die). Shapes can be forged into the end or in the length of stock by first upsetting the material, as well as bespoke forgings being made from a single billet.
Although open die forging is an old manufacturing process often associated with simpler shaped parts, such as bars, blanks, rings, hollows or spindles, it can be considered the ultimate option in custom-designed metal components. Superior grain flow and refining of the steels internal structure optimise the mechanical properties resulting in high strength and long life.
Open Die Forging is one of the oldest forms of manufacturing, using traditional blacksmith methods.
The billet is heated above recrystallization temperature, ranging from 1000°C to 1300°C for steel, and gradually shaped by skilful hammering or pressing of the work piece to create the desired shape.